This article provides an up-to-date survey of hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks that leverage on the respective strengths of optical and wireless. A definitive objective of Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) systems is the meeting of different optical and wireless innovations under a solitary base keeping in mind the end. Survey Smoothly Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Accessing Wireless Networks: Convergence and Challenges. Naseer Hwaidi Alkhazaali, Raed Abduljabbar Aljiznawi.

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For a more detailed and comprehensive description of QoS provisioning techniques for FiWi access networks the interested reader is referred to [ 59 ].

Finally, the quality of the wireless signal has to be at least the threshold of an acceptable carrier-to-interference ratio. In particular, energy generation and distribution systems play a crucial role. This major difference between optical fiber and wireless links should also be taken into account in the design of integrated routing algorithms for FiWi access networks. The objective of the proposed energy-aware routing algorithm is to use already existent paths and put the other FiWi network segments asleep.

Bringing fiber all the way to buildings gives rise to FTTB networks. Otherwise, the service request is rejected. This paper has citations. In the event of one or more link failures, the affected lightpaths are dynamically reconfigured using the redundant fiber paths of the architecture. It is important to note, however, that in general the goal of utilities is to use only a small number of low-cost, simple, reliable, and future-proof smart grid communications technologies that remain in place for decades after installation.

Peer-to-peer communications in FiWi access networks [ 42 ]. Recall from above that beside reliability, latency is a key requirement of not only smart grid communications but also LTE-A fiber backhaul infrastructures.

Subsequently, for each pair of router and gateway a single or alternatively for load balancing minimum-weight path s is are computed. As a consequence, wireless MAC frames do not have to travel along the optical fiber to be processed at the CO but simply traverse their associated wireless access point and remain in the wireless front-end, thus avoiding the negative impact of fiber propagation delay on the network performance.


The objective of the routing algorithm is to route traffic in the FiWi network such that network throughput is maximized.

Apart from giber-wireless low-cost microcellular radio networks, optical fibers can also be used to support a wide variety of other radio signals. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. At the end survej each interval, the lightpaths may be dynamically reconfigured in response to varying traffic demands. More precisely, links with higher predicted delays are given higher weights and vice versa.

Each ONU deploys a pair of fixed-tuned sudvey and fixed-tuned receiver at dedicated upstream and downstream wavelength channels. The WLAN mesh front-end of FiWi access networks may be used to provide WiFi offloading of rapidly increasing mobile data traffic from cellular networks, thereby avoiding the need for capacity upgrades while at the same time helping reduce the complexity of future mobile networks. Clearly, this figure illustrates that an increasing percentage of broadband subscribers rely on fiber access technologies at the expense of legacy DSL solutions.

The CaDAR routing algorithm, originally intended only for the wireless front-end as explained above, can be extended to perform integrated path computation across both the wireless and figer-wireless domains of FiWi access networks.

Furthermore, FiWi research also includes the study of different remodulation schemes for the design of colorless i.

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey

View at Scopus N. In the following, we describe various proposed routing algorithms for the wireless front-end of FiWi access networks.

For downstream data transmissions to a fiiw destination node, the OLT selects a gateway such that data packets travel on the minimum delay acxess across the EPON and wireless mesh front-end. An interesting approach to solve this problem is the use of an RoF network installed along the rail tracks in combination with the so-called moving cell concept [ 20 ].

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey – Semantic Scholar

Furthermore, broadband increases competitiveness and flexibility in the economy by the increased diffusion of information at lower cost and by improving market access to increasingly larger markets.

An efficient algorithm for optimal integrated points placement in hybrid optical-wireless access networks Yu LiuChi ZhouYu Cheng A link availability model for FiWi access networks was developed in [ 53 ] and its performance was analyzed for various routing algorithms, including Syrvey, CaDAR, availability-aware routing, and multipath routing.


View at Google Scholar Z. By simultaneously providing wired and wireless services over the same infrastructure, FiWi access networks are able to consolidate optical and wireless access networks that are usually run independently of each other, thus potentially leading to major cost savings. It was shown for a node single-radio IEEE A given wireless mesh source node uses this information for computation of the minimum delay path to the OLT.

With the advent of high-speed IEEE Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has citations based on the available data. As shown in Figure 4suppose that wireless mesh client wants to communicate with mesh client. Citation Statistics Citations 0 10 20 30 ’10 ’12 ’14 ’16 ‘ RoF networks are attractive since they provide transparency against modulation techniques and are able to support various digital formats and wireless standards in a cost-effective manner.

This is already witnessed by installed state-of-the-art VDSL equipment, which is almost exclusively based on optical fiber backhaul solutions. Optical fiber does not go everywhere, but where it does go, it provides a huge amount of available bandwidth. Moreover, the number of channels assigned to each BS is large enough to serve its wireless users, while not exceeding the upper bound of channels assigned to any BS.

Consequently, the CO must be able to assign channels quickly and efficiently by using one or more wavelength channels on the fiber ring to accommodate multiple services such as WLAN and cellular radio network.

fbier-wireless OW communications links operate at much higher carrier frequencies than their RF counterparts. Each RN consists of a protection unit and a bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer based on a multilayer dielectric interference filter.

View at Scopus T.